Inappropriate spacing is one of the major problems in tomato production at the study area. However, there was no significant difference in both number of cluster per plant and yield per hectare between 150 and 100 kg N/ha. Yield per hectare 250 kg Total yield of tomato per plant ranged from 492.49g to 2082.52 g the highest being recorded in the DAP-Urea fertilized plots and the lowest in the spring water fed plots. China is the largest tomato producer in the world with 56,423,811 tonnes production volume per year. The average yield of tomato in Ethiopia is extremely low, 8 tone/ha compared to the world average yields which is 34 tone/ha . The AgroBIG annual survey shows that about 0.08 ha of land is dedicated to tomatoes on average per household, and yields average 137 quintals per hectare (2020). hectare (r = 0.47) and fruit yield per hectare (r = 0.99). (2012) reported highly positive significant association of fruit yield per plant (0.98) and number of fruits per plant (0.53) with marketable fruit yield per hectare for nine tomato varieties evaluated in Jimma, Ethiopia. The national average of tomato fruit yield under farmers’ condition is 9 t/ha, which is very low compared to 25 and 40 t/ha at demonstration … the present tomato production practices of growers. In Ethiopia, farmers get lower yield mainly due to diseases and pests as well as due to sub-optimal fertilization. Mehla et al. tomatoes from 87 quintal/hectare to 133.86 quintals/hectare with an average annual growth rate of 9% and total production from 58.91 thousand tons in the base year to 90.64 thousand tons in the end line. crops. Around Holeta (Central Ethiopia) the maximum seed yield was 600kg hectare19,20 using honeybees as pollinator of niger; while 16700kg/hectare was obtained in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia.16 This yield differences between Central and Northern Ethiopia have recorded because of agroecology, soil type variation, and other environmental factors. Owing to the limited availability of improved cultivars that are suitable for different purposes, the yield of tomato in Ethiopia is far below the world’s average. Per acre cost of production is high, and yields can be severely limited by pest problems or environment. conditions in Ethiopia . The crop handling is still dominated by traditional ways except for small tomato is the oldest in Ethiopia. Fruit weight per plant was highly significantly and positively correlated with seed weight per hectare (r = 0.47) and fruit yield per hectare (r = 0.99). Accuracy of yield estimates depends upon an adequate number of counts being taken so as to get a representative average of the paddock. 3.2 Labour Horticultural farming is high labour-intensive, requiring 32 to 34 labourers per hectare per day. A total of 40 to 60 kg of phosphorus per hectare is suggested in soils with a built-up of the nutrient. Since Ethiopia has .abundant supply of unskilled labor at Birr 20-30(US 1 17- 1.76) per day. Yields of over 20 tons per hectare have been achieved by some growers, even from large plantings, and certain trial plots have yielded the equivalent of about 30 tons per hectare. (2013) reported highest fruit yield ha –1 (56.07 t ha –1) evaluating 36 tomato genotypes. Since 1960, yields in sugar beet have more than doubled, rising from 30 tonnes to more than than 80 tonnes per hectare. area of Ethiopia. Her diversified agricultural products include onion, tomato, mango and papaya. (Lemma, 2003). The framers also produce this variety only during main cropping season even though irrigation water is available. The national average of tomato fruit yield in Ethiopia is often low (125 q/ha) compared even to the neighboring African countries like Kenya (164 q/ha) . Worldwide 177,118,248 tonnes of tomato is produced per year. 2005). Average number of grains per head/pod is 24 (B) Weight of 100 grains of wheat is 3.4g (per Table 1) (C) Yield in t/ha = (220 × 24 × 3.4) / 10,000 = 1.79. According to (Lemma, 2003), tomato is the most profitable vegetable with net income of about 11,000 to 14,000 Birr per hectare. Higher total yield per plant was observed in the fertilizer treatment while the spring water treatment showed lowest total yield per plant (Fig 1). Drought, heat, production is profitable. Its production is more attractive than any other vegetable crops for its multiple harvests, which results in high profit per unit area of land. However, tomato production is highly constrained by several factors especially in developing nations like Ethiopia. yields as high as 175 and 178 tones per hectare respectively have been recorded (Bowen and Kratku, 1982), the yield of tomato in Nigeria is low, the average in Western part of the country being only about 5 tones per hectare and in growing areas of Northern Nigeria is 20 tones per hectare … in tomato production more than any other vegetable for its multiple harvests, which result in high profit per unit area. India comes second with 18,399,000 tonnes yearly production. A field experiment was conducted to determine inter- and intrarow plant spacing for yield and yield components of tomato at Shewarobit, central rift valley of Ethiopia, under irrigation condition. Yield loss was estimated according to the following formula: Potential yield is protected treatment was considered the Treatments consisted of factorial combinations of seven nitrogen rates (0, 23, 46, 92,138, 184 and 230 kg N/ha) and two population densities of 33,333 and 55,556 plants per hectare. From 1993 up to 2011 the tomato production area increased to 5338ha with total production of 55635 Mg (Habtamu, 2017). Phosphorus promotes root development, early flowering and fruit set and en-sures more vigorous growth. in developing nations like Ethiopia. Yield data in treated and untreated plots in the tomato harvest seasons (2015 to 2017), under glasshouse and field conditions represented by weight in ton per hectare was estimated. This supply delay has forced some farmers to pay about 2.80 Birr per seedling from farmers with excess seedlings grown at Florensis Ethiopia (at only 0.35 Birr/seedling). : Yield Performance of Improved Tomato (Lycopersiconesculentum Mill.) Potato yields have also almost doubled, increasing from just over 20 tonnes in 1960 to more than 40 tonnes per hectare in 2014. Similarly, Chernet et al. 2 MATERIALS AND METHODS Alamata district is located 600 km north of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, in the Tigray region. Additionally, the production area of vegetable crop is increasing from 80 ha to 833 ha in 1980 to 1993 and from 16578.72 ha to 22035.80 ha in 2006 to 2011 with demand from time to time. The treatment 150 kg/ha nitrogen fertilizer increased the number of cluster per plant and yield of tomato fruit per hectare by 34.50 and 70.79% over the control treatment, respectively. Farmers in Babile district of Ethiopia cultivate tomato from unknown seed sources and small fruit sizes, which lead to low fruit yield. Biotic factors contributing for lower yield of tomato in Ethiopia include insect pests (Gashawbeza et al., 2009), disease (Wondirad et al., 2009), and plant parasitic weeds (Etagegnehu et al., 2009). Khartoum State is the one of its most important areas and has experienced massive development in the production and marketing of the tomato. be applied per hectare. Farmers involved in horticultural production usually earn much higher farm incomes as compared to cereal producers and per capita farm income has been reported up to five times higher ( Lumpkin et al. It is recommended that phosphorus be banded in acid soils. Ethiopia has different varieties of fruit and vegetable crops that can grow in different agro ecological Lack of hybrid seedlings is therefore a major bottleneck for expanding hybrid tomato production in East Shoa and other parts of Ethiopia. Tomato production is faced with a number of constraints which are biotic and abiotic that resulted into low yield. Approximately 3,300 ha of private hold-ings were under tomato cultivation, and the total volume of fresh tomato harvested was 347, 27.748 tons (Ethiopian Investment Agency, 2008). The tomato variety Bishola was found to be high seed yielder as compared to the other varieties compared and hence it is suggested that tomato producers in Jimma area can use Bishola variety for high seed yield. Varieties at West Shoa Zone, Ethiopia around 5000 ha with the production of 40 tones and productivity of 6 ton ha-1 that is far below average world production and productivity . For instance, in the year 2019, she harvested more than 500 quintals of onion as the result of increased productivity and additional land rent. Lemma (2002) reported that open field production of tomato expose to abiotic and biotic factors that … Expertise in the areas of cultural practices, soils and fertility management, pest control, harvesting, post-harvest handling, marketing, and farm record keeping is crucial to profitable production. The world’s average was 34.84 tones/ha and the average productivity of Ethiopian was 7.57 tones/ha (FAO 2009). (2013), who found the highest fruit yield per hectare (2.48 kg) comparing 30 tomato genotypes in Pakistan. 2 Chala Begna Bedassa et al. Yield per hectare increased and production diversified. Vegetables provide smallholder farmers with much higher income per hectare than staple crops (AVRDC, 1990). from25-40 tonnes per hectare. (e.g., grape production for the local winery, perishable vegetables such as green beans and peas for export). “The ban is necessary so as to boost local production of the commodity and ensure that Nigeria is self sufficient in tomato production. obtained. ... a minimum of 40 tons per hectare. Introduction Like any other crops tomato fruit yield is a complex character that is influenced by many factors (Ara et al., 2007). In recent years, white maize yields ranged on a regional basis from 1 ton per hectare or less in Western and Central Africa through 1.2 tons per hectare in Eastern and Southern Africa, to 1.8 tons per hectare in Asia, and 2 tons per hectare or more in Central and South America. Farmers should produce improved tomato variety at least two times per year using irrigation water to increase their production on their limited land. increasing crop yield under these conditions strongly rests on the use of irrigation water and/or maximizing yield per unit of water applied (Pereira et al., 2002). Tomato production is complex. Both fresh and processed tomato varieties are However, the growth and development of ﬂeshy ∗Corresponding author Although tomato is one of Ethiopia’s export crops, it’s productivity is very low in all the Programme districts. Author obtained small ( Lemma, 2003 ) 2.48 kg ) comparing 30 genotypes. 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